European painting and graphics

The gallery of European painting and graphics combines the main stylistic trends and genres from the late 16th to mid-20th centuries.

The late "Renaissance" (mid-16th to early 17th centuries) is represented by the painting "Monk" (Giovanni).

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The art of this period is not peculiar to the general direction in which the art of the Early and High Renaissance was distinguished with all the variety of painting schools. The creativity of this stage is very intricate and ambiguous, it is dominated by the confrontation of different styles. The artworks are full of anxiety and tension; coldness and instability become characteristic artistic manner. This period marks a transition from the Renaissance to the Baroque era.

Baroque paintings captivate the viewer with their radiant, harmonious, and lively overall effect. These canvases are marked by dramatic fullness, rich and deep colors, intense light and dark contrasts, and a focus on the unity of life's sensual and bodily pleasures, as well as its tragic conflicts. The gallery showcases works that embody the hallmark of baroque, including "Portrait of a woman" by an unknown artist, "La tender sultane" by Charles Grandon, "The Apostle Peter" by an unknown artist, and "Playing Cards" by Gerard Hermansz Van Honthorst.

The next major ideological and artistic movement is Romanticism, marked by its pursuit of harmony. The painting "At the forge" by Eugene Delacroix, one of the style's founders and prominent figures, exemplifies the Romantic ideal, as described by Stendhal: "Reviving the iron images of people from distant centuries, English poets would have missed the mark if they depicted only the grand exploits of these heroes instead of the passions themselves; it is the passions that we are interested in." Romanticism is characterized by its portrayal of strong passions, sacred movements of the soul, and dreaminess, as opposed to intense emotionality and passion. Portrait painting of this era is filled with a full range of emotions and moods, without flattery or embellishment, as evidenced by the female portraits of Abura Gadema and E. Martin, and the monk image by Eduard von Grützner. The landscapes of this period embody more than just an artistic image. Eugen Jettel's canvas conveys the unity of nature and art, a sense of infinity, and an elusive aspect of the absolute.

Along with Romanticism, Historicism emerged in the 19th century and sought to evoke previous artistic styles. The ideology of Romanticism influenced the view of history as a continuous flow of diverse expressions such as styles, trends, and techniques. The gallery presents two works that embody the stylistic elements of different periods, such as "Still life with glass of wine" by H. Schmidt and "Kittens and magpie" by an unknown artist.

The late 19th and early 20th centuries in visual arts are marked by the rise of Impressionism. This style became a precursor to the avant-garde movements of the 20th century. Impressionists valued a subjective experience of color, light, and space, and their paintings were full of life, with swift and easy compositions, often fragmented and with random motives. Japanese graphics also influenced impressionism, as demonstrated in the use of pure local tones. Plein air painting gained popularity, and the gallery features works by renowned Impressionists such as Pierre-Auguste Renoir and Jacques-Joseph Tissot.

It is noteworthy that Impressionism sparked the development of Modernism, a diverse artistic system of the late 19th and mid-20th century that aimed at renewing the artistic language and experimenting with creative methods. Modernism prioritizes the refinement of form, mystical understanding of reality, inner experience, and the transformation of reality. Its key movements include Fauvism, Cubism, Symbolism, Futurism, Expressionism, and Constructivism, as well as less recognizable styles such as Divisionism, Neoplasticism, Orphism, and Purism. Iconic Modernist artists, like Pablo Picasso, Fernand Léger, and Kalle Kuutola, are featured in the virtual gallery.

Academism continued to develop in parallel with modernist movements and played an important role in the art of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The works of academism artists were characterized by a high level of skill and technique, as well as a focus on classical themes and ideals. However, the academic style often faced criticism from modernists for its adherence to tradition and resistance to innovation and experimentation. Despite this, the influence of academism can be seen in the work of many contemporary artists who seek to merge classical techniques with modern approaches.

Lawrence Alma-Tadema 'Portrait of a lady'
Lawrence Alma-Tadema
Portrait of a lady
E. Martin 'Portrait of a woman'
E. Martin
Portrait of a woman
 'Portrait of a woman'
Portrait of a woman
Charles Grandon 'La tender sultane'
Charles Grandon
La tender sultane
Eugène Delacroix 'At the forge'
Eugène Delacroix
At the forge
Giovanni Lanfranco 'Religious'
Giovanni Lanfranco
Eugen Jettel 'Landscape'
Eugen Jettel
Kalle Kuutola 'City landscape'
Kalle Kuutola
City landscape
Kalle Kuutola 'Paris'
Kalle Kuutola
Fernand Léger 'Two women'
Fernand Léger
Two women
Fernand Léger 'Pigeons'
Fernand Léger
Fernand Léger 'Man and woman'
Fernand Léger
Man and woman
Fernand Léger 'At the circus'
Fernand Léger
At the circus
Fernand Léger 'Battle'
Fernand Léger
Pablo Picasso 'Three oranges'
Pablo Picasso
Three oranges
Pablo Picasso 'Unnamed'
Pablo Picasso
Rubens Santoro 'Napoli'
Rubens Santoro
Francisco de Zurbarán 'The Apostle Peter'
Francisco de Zurbarán
The Apostle Peter
 'Portrait of a woman'
Portrait of a woman
Jacques-Joseph Tissot 'A girl in red, in the park'
Jacques-Joseph Tissot
A girl in red, in the park
Pierre-Auguste Renoir 'Children with a book '
Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Children with a book
Gerard Hermansz van Honthorst 'Playing cards'
Gerard Hermansz van Honthorst
Playing cards
H. Schmidt 'Still life with glass of wine'
H. Schmidt
Still life with glass of wine
 'Kittens and magpie'
Kittens and magpie
Eduard von Grützner 'Religioner'
Eduard von Grützner
 'Portrait of a woman'
Portrait of a woman
Jean-Baptiste Greuze 'Domestic scene'
Jean-Baptiste Greuze
Domestic scene